Lesson 6: Similarity comparison with embeddings

đź’ˇ Full Course with Videos and Course Certificate (PDF): https://academy.finxter.com/university/openai-api-function-calls-and-embeddings/

Welcome back to part 6 of this tutorial series. In this part, we’re going to be looking at embeddings. What is an embedding? Without getting into algorithmic arithmetic an embedding is basically a numerical (vector) representation of text that makes no sense to us, but makes sense to the computer and allows it to compare the similarity in meaning of certain words and pieces of text.

What makes this so exciting is that it does not literally compare the words, but rather the meaning of the words. For example, if we were to compare the words “happy” and “contented” it would not compare the words themselves, but rather the meaning of the words. This is because the words “happy” and “contented” are very similar in meaning, but not in spelling. This is what makes embeddings so powerful. It allows us to compare or search by similarity of meaning, even if the words used are completely different!

Imagine having a large document and you need to find a particular quote or passage but you only half remember the exact words used. You can totally just do a similarity search using embeddings! As long as you input something with a similar meaning, you’ll be able to easily find the passage you need even if you don’t remember the exact wording. The uses for this are really endless in many different and clever ways, so we’ll be exploring a couple of possible uses in the last two parts of this tutorial series.

Preparing our data

Before we get started we’ll need something to search in. For this first part, we’ll be using a list of quotes from famous people throughout time. There are about 250 quotes in the list. I’ve provided the list as a separate text file with this tutorial, but if for some reason it is not available you can find the list at the end of this tutorial. Just copy the quotes and paste them into a new file named ‘Fx_quotes.txt’ and save it in your tutorial’s root folder

> Fx_quotes.txt

Now if you read through the quotes file you’ll notice they all have their authors and sometimes extra information attached. As we only want to compare the meaning of the quotes themselves, and not any extra information that is tagged on, let’s have a bit of fun. This is not technically required, but it’s quite easy to do and for tutorial purposes, it will be very easy to show visually what is going on, so we’ll be writing the quotes to a separate Python file as a list of lists.

First, create a file in your base directory named ‘Fa_write_quotes_to_list.py’.

> Fa_write_quotes_to_list.py

Now open the file and add the following code:

quotes = []

with open("Fx_quotes.txt", "r") as file:
    quotes = file.read().split("\n")


with open("Fx_quotes.py", "w") as file:
    file.write("quotes = [\n")
    for quote in quotes:
        # split the quote only on the first occurrence of the '-' character
        quote = quote.split(" - ", 1)
        file.write(f"{quote},\n")
    file.write("]")

First, we create an empty list named quotes. Then we open the Fx_quotes.txt file in read mode (make sure the files are both in the root folder). We then read the quotes from the file, split them on the newline characters, so the end of each line, and assign this to the quotes variable. We now have a list of quotes with each ‘quote-author’ pair as a single combined item in the list.

Next, we open the Fx_quotes.py file in write mode (it will be created automatically if it doesn’t exist). We then write the string “quotes = [\n” to the file. This is just a Python variable named quotes followed by the opening square bracket and a newline (enter key) character. We then loop through each quote in the quotes list, splitting the quote on the first occurrence of the ‘-‘ character. This will split the quote into two parts, the quote itself and the author. We then write the quote to the file, followed by a comma and a newline character. We then write the closing square bracket to the file. This will close the list and the file.

Note we use the ‘with open’ context manager in both cases which means we don’t have to worry about closing the files ourselves. The context manager will automatically close the files for us when the code block has finished executing.

If you run this file you’ll see a new file appear in your base directory. Opening Fx_quotes.py you should see the following:

quotes = [
["A man is great not because he hasn't failed; a man is great because failure hasn't stopped him.", 'Confucius'],
['Happiness is a gift and the trick is not to expect it, but to delight in it when it comes.', 'Charles Dickens'],
['Everyday you can take a tiny step in the right direction.', 'Unknown'],
['Sometimes adversity is what you need to face in order to become successful.', 'Zig Ziglar'],
['Opportunity comes when you continually push forward.', 'Sonia Ricotti'],
['Always seek out the seed of triumph in every adversity.', 'Og Mandino'],
['Reality is nothing but a collective hunch.', 'Lily Tomlin'],
['Best be yourself, imperial, plain, and true.', 'Robert Browning'],
["Resilience is not what happens to you. It's how you react to, respond to, and recover from what happens to you.", 'Jeffrey Gitomer'],
['Time is a game played beautifully by children.', 'Heraclitus'],
['Most people fail in life because they major in minor things.', 'Tony Robbins'],
['Anyone who has ever made anything of importance was disciplined.', 'Andrew Hendrixson'],
['Do anything, but let it produce joy.', 'Walt Whitman'],
...many more quotes...
]

Now we have a separate list of lists with the quote in index 0 and the author info in index 1. We’ll need to generate a separate embedding for every single quote in the list and store them somewhere. Once we have done so we can compare them to any piece of text we enter to find similar entries. If this seems confusing, don’t worry, we’ll be showing exactly how the process works.

Generating an embedding

Before we start generating embeddings for all our quotes let’s actually look at how to generate an embedding in the first place and exactly what an embedding is and looks like. Create a new file in your root tutorial directory called ‘Fb_getting_an_embedding.py’. Again the silly alphabetic naming is just to keep the files in a nice order so you can easily find anything if you want to reference these tutorial code files later on.

> Fb_getting_an_embedding.py

Now open the file and let’s start with our imports up top:

import openai
from decouple import config

openai.api_key = config("CHATGPT_API_KEY")
EMBEDDING_MODEL = "text-embedding-ada-002"

We’ll go back to the basics for a moment, getting rid of our simplified GPT calling utility as we’ll be using a different model. We’ll be using the text-embedding-ada-002 model as it is specifically designed for generating embeddings. We import openai, as the embeddings endpoint is also an openai API. We import the config function and set our openai API key as we did for the previous parts, embeddings use the same API key as normal ChatGPT. We then set the EMBEDDING_MODEL variable to the text-embedding-ada-002 model.

Now we’ll create a simple call function:

def get_quote_embedding(quote):
    response = openai.Embedding.create(
        model=EMBEDDING_MODEL,
        input=quote,
    )
    return response

print(get_quote_embedding("Please embed this sentence for me!"))

This is very self-explanatory and similar to normal ChatGPT calls except we use a openai.Embedding.create instead of ChatCompletion.create. It takes a model and an input text, we pass in the model we defined in our variable and the quote input our function takes. Finally, we add a call to this function below the function block which will embed the text “Please embed this sentence for me!” and print the result.

Now let’s generate our first embedding and see what it looks like. Go ahead and run the file:

{
    "data": [
        {
            "embedding": [
                -0.03016725555062294,
                0.005489848554134369,
                0.0014944026479497552,
                -0.014989439398050308,
                0.002586822025477886,
                0.02618442475795746,
                0.010024355724453926,
                0.0032814627047628164,
                -0.005856511183083057,
                -0.015339282341301441,
                -0.01650991104543209,
                ... many more numbers ...
            ],
            "index": 0,
            "object": "embedding"
        }
    ],
    "model": "text-embedding-ada-002-v2",
    "object": "list",
    "usage": {
        "prompt_tokens": 7,
        "total_tokens": 7
    }
}

You should see a massive list of numbers representing vectors, about 1500 lines just for this simple short sentence. While this doesn’t really make visual sense to us this is the magic that will allow the computer to compare the similarity between different text’s vectors, and thereby the similarity between the texts themselves. The computer will not be comparing the text but the text’s vectors with each other.

Generating our quote embeddings

We will need to generate an embedding for every quote in our list and store them in some type of database. If we don’t save the embeddings we’d have to generate them anew every single time which takes time and wastes tokens. We’ll be using a CSV file for storage to get started, which is basically a simple text file with comma-separated values.

Create a new file in your base tutorial directory named ‘Fc_quote_embeddings.py’.

> Fc_quote_embeddings.py

Now open the file and add the following imports and setup to get started:

import openai
import pandas as pd

from decouple import config

from Fx_quotes import quotes

openai.api_key = config("CHATGPT_API_KEY")
EMBEDDING_MODEL = "text-embedding-ada-002"

total_tokens_used = 0
total_embeddings = 0

Most of these are familiar, we import and set up the openai module with our key and import the quotes we saved to a Python list earlier on. We also import the Pandas module. We won’t go too deep into Pandas, but will briefly cover the functions we use, so if you’re not familiar with Pandas no worries. Pandas is basically a spreadsheet/table in Python, it allows us to easily create, read, update, and delete data in a spreadsheet/table-like format with rows and columns of data. Note you may need to run ‘pip install pandas’ in your console if you don’t have Pandas installed yet.

Finally, we set two global variables to keep track of the total tokens used and the total embeddings generated, so we can give ourselves a sort of progress indicator as we run the file later on.

Now define a function that takes a quote as an argument and makes a single embedding API call, returning the response:

def get_quote_embedding(quote):
    global total_tokens_used, total_embeddings
    response = openai.Embedding.create(
        model=EMBEDDING_MODEL,
        input=quote,
    )
    tokens_used = response["usage"]["total_tokens"]
    total_tokens_used += tokens_used
    total_embeddings += 1
    if (total_embeddings % 10) == 0:
        print(
            f"Generated {total_embeddings} embeddings so far with a total of {total_tokens_used} tokens used. ({int((total_embeddings / len(quotes)) * 100)}%)"
        )
    return response["data"][0]["embedding"]

The function takes a quote as an argument, and the second line gives us access to the global variables total_tokens_used and total_embeddings. We’ll be running this function over and over so we can increment these global variables each pass. We then make the API call just like we did before.

We get the tokens used from the response data and add the tokens used on this call to the global variable total_tokens_used. We also increment the total_embeddings global variable by 1. We then check if the total_embeddings is a multiple of 10, using the remainder operator. If the total embeddings number is cleanly divisible by 10 we print a progress message to the console to inform ourselves of the progress of the embedding generation so far. This just means every 10 times the function runs it will print the overall progress to the console once. We then return the response, but only the actual embedding itself which is located in [“data”][0][“embedding”].

Now we need some kind of data structure to hold our data. Below and outside the function block, continue:

embedding_df = pd.DataFrame(columns=["quote", "author", "embedding"])

A DataFrame is Pandas’ signature data structure, pd just stands for Pandas. All this is is an empty table with three columns; quote, author, and embedding, that we can use to store our data in.

Now we’ll need to loop over our list of quotes and call the above get_quote_embedding function once for each quote in the file and store our data in the DataFrame.

for index, quote in enumerate(quotes):
    current_quote = quote[0]
    try:
        current_author = quote[1]
    except IndexError:
        current_author = "Unknown"
    embedding = get_quote_embedding(current_quote)
    embedding_df.loc[index] = [current_quote, current_author, embedding]

For each index and quote in the enumerate quotes (remember we already imported our quotes from the different file up top), we will run the following code. The current_quote = quote index 0, and we try to set the current_author to quote index 1. If there is no quote index 1, we set the current_author to “Unknown”. We then call our get_quote_embedding function on the current_quote and set the embedding variable to the response data’s embedding.

Finally, we select the embedding_df Dataframe and use the loc method to select the current index which will increase with each loop iteration. We set the values of the current index of this Dataframe to the current quote, author, and embedding, filling in the Dataframe with data loop by loop.

Note that certain code like current_quote = quote[0] is not technically required, but if you code in this style it’s much easier to read and if you come back to your code later you’ll be able to jump right back in. Writing your code as human-readable as possible is always preferable over clever one-liners that are hard to read.

Now that we’ve filled up our DataFrame with data, let’s save the DataFrame to a CSV file so we can load it later on. Then we’ll print a success message to finish up. The .head() method in the print statement just prints the first x rows of a DataFrame and is a built-in Pandas method.

embedding_df.to_csv("Fx_embedding_db.csv", index=False)

print(
    f"""
Generated {total_embeddings} embeddings with a total of {total_tokens_used} tokens used. (Done!)
Succesfully saved embeddings to embedding_db.csv, printing dataframe head:
{embedding_df.head(5)}

    """
)

As you can see, Pandas provides an easy method for us to dump the DataFrame to a CSV (comma-separated values) text file using the .to_csv method. We pass in the filename we want to save to and set the index to False. This just means we don’t want to save the index column to the CSV file, as we don’t need it. The index column is a Pandas-generated ID column that just holds numbers like 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

Your complete ‘Fc_quote_embeddings.py’ file should now look like this:

import openai
import pandas as pd

from decouple import config

from Fx_quotes import quotes

openai.api_key = config("CHATGPT_API_KEY")
EMBEDDING_MODEL = "text-embedding-ada-002"


total_tokens_used = 0
total_embeddings = 0


def get_quote_embedding(quote):
    global total_tokens_used, total_embeddings
    response = openai.Embedding.create(
        model=EMBEDDING_MODEL,
        input=quote,
    )
    tokens_used = response["usage"]["total_tokens"]
    total_tokens_used += tokens_used
    total_embeddings += 1
    if (total_embeddings % 10) == 0:
        print(
            f"Generated {total_embeddings} embeddings so far with a total of {total_tokens_used} tokens used. ({int((total_embeddings / len(quotes)) * 100)}%)"
        )
    return response["data"][0]["embedding"]


embedding_df = pd.DataFrame(columns=["quote", "author", "embedding"])


for index, quote in enumerate(quotes):
    current_quote = quote[0]
    try:
        current_author = quote[1]
    except IndexError:
        current_author = "Unknown"
    embedding = get_quote_embedding(current_quote)
    embedding_df.loc[index] = [current_quote, current_author, embedding]


embedding_df.to_csv("Fx_embedding_db.csv", index=False)

print(
    f"""
Generated {total_embeddings} embeddings with a total of {total_tokens_used} tokens used. (Done!)
Succesfully saved embeddings to embedding_db.csv, printing dataframe head:
{embedding_df.head(5)}

    """
)

Go ahead and run it, this will take a little bit, but you’ll see regular status updates in your console.

Generated 10 embeddings so far with a total of 149 tokens used. (3%)
Generated 20 embeddings so far with a total of 292 tokens used. (7%)
Generated 30 embeddings so far with a total of 429 tokens used. (11%)
Generated 40 embeddings so far with a total of 617 tokens used. (15%)
Generated 50 embeddings so far with a total of 796 tokens used. (19%)
......

Don’t worry, this will cost you like $0.001 as the current price for Ada v2 tokens is $0.0001 per 1000 tokens. Make sure you let it run to 100%. You’ll see the basic structure of the DataFrame, which is just a table with three columns holding data:

                                            quote           author                                          embedding
0  A man is great not because he hasn't failed; a...        Confucius  [-0.03543785214424133, -0.01987086981534958, 0...
1  Happiness is a gift and the trick is not to ex...  Charles Dickens  [-0.0009652393055148423, -0.009218506515026093...
2  Everyday you can take a tiny step in the right...          Unknown  [0.014701569452881813, 0.00505814841017127, 0....
3  Sometimes adversity is what you need to face i...       Zig Ziglar  [0.0021813535131514072, -0.011264899745583534,...
4  Opportunity comes when you continually push fo...    Sonia Ricotti  [-0.008844518102705479, -0.042655542492866516,...

You’ll now also have a large CSV file named ‘Fx_embedding_db.csv’ in your base directory which contains the column names and then all the values for all quotes, separated by commas. This is like a simple embeddings database we can load again later so we don’t have to generate these embeddings again.

Finding similar quotes

Now that we have all our embeddings generated and stored it’s time to have some fun! Go ahead and close up this file. We’ll be creating a new file named ‘Fd_find_nearest_quotes.py’ in which we’ll make a simple console utility similar-quote-search.

> Fd_find_nearest_quotes.py

Inside, let’s start with our imports:

import openai
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

from decouple import config
from openai.embeddings_utils import cosine_similarity

openai.api_key = config("CHATGPT_API_KEY")
EMBEDDING_MODEL = "text-embedding-ada-002"

You may need to ‘pip install (package_name)’ if you’re missing any of these packages. We import openai and set the key using decouple/config as before. We also import pandas again and set the Embedding model to the same one we used before. The Numpy import is a library for working with arrays and matrices, it will allow us to efficiently load our embeddings from the CSV file we saved earlier on. Numpy has its own arrays for working with numbers which are more memory and CPU efficient, but of course also more limited, than Python’s built-in lists. We also import the cosine_similarity function from openai.embeddings_utils, as cosine similarity is how we compare the similarity between two embeddings.

Now define a simple get embedding function again, as we need to get one more embedding for the user input, so we can compare it to the embeddings in the database:

def get_quote_embedding(quote):
    response = openai.Embedding.create(
        model=EMBEDDING_MODEL,
        input=quote,
    )
    return response["data"][0]["embedding"]

You can also abstract away the get_quote_embedding function to a different file like we did with the GPT_turbo_3.5 call in previous tutorial parts, but I’m just going to leave it in this file for now.

Now we’re going to load our stored embeddings from the CSV file (we’re back outside the previous function block now):

df = pd.read_csv("Fx_embedding_db.csv")
df["embedding"] = df.embedding.apply(eval).apply(np.array)

The first line is pandas .read_csv method loading our CSV file for us. The CSV file only contains text, which is fine for our quote and author columns, as they only contain text, but the embedding is supposed to be an array. We need to therefore convert the embeddings column back from text form to arrays. As we briefly alluded to before, the Numpy library has more efficient arrays than Python lists when it comes to working with large amounts of numerical values.

The second line selects the df[’embedding’] column, which is Pandas’ way of selecting a column in the DataFrame. We set the value of this column to df.embedding (also the embedding column) but with the values evaluated and converted to Numpy arrays. The .apply method is a Pandas method that applies a function to every value in a column. We pass in the eval function which evaluates the string as a Python expression, and then we pass in the np.array function which converts the evaluated string to a numpy array.

Now let’s define a function to compare the similarity between a user input string and our quotes in the database:

def find_similar_quotes(user_input, number_of_results=5):
    user_embedding = get_quote_embedding(user_input)
    df["similarity"] = df.embedding.apply(
        lambda embedding: cosine_similarity(embedding, user_embedding)
    )
    result = df.sort_values(by="similarity", ascending=False).head(number_of_results)
    for i in range(number_of_results):
        print(
            f"{i+1}: {result.iloc[i]['quote']} - {result.iloc[i]['author']} ({result.iloc[i]['similarity']})"
        )
    return result

The function takes a user_input string and an optional number of results desired argument. First, we get an embedding for the user input, so we can compare it against the other embeddings to find similar results. We then declare a new column in our DataFrame by simply stating df[‘similarity’] and then defining what we want inside this column.

This part may look slightly confusing but we set the value of this new df[‘similarity’] column to be the same value as the df[’embedding’] column after a function has been applied to it. The function we apply is a lambda inline function that takes an embedding as input argument and then runs the cosine_similarity function with the embedding comparing it versus the user_embedding. This returns a number containing the degree of similarity for each quote in the DataFrame, representing the similarity between what the user typed and the quote in that particular row.

After this we use the .sort_values Pandas method to sort the DataFrame by this new similarity column, setting ascending to False to make sure we get the highest and thus most similar results first. We then use the .head method to select the first x rows of the DataFrame, in this case, the number of results we want. We then loop over the results and print the quote, author, and similarity score for each result. the iloc method is a Pandas method that allows us to select a row by index in this DataFrame copy we named result.

Getting user input

Phew! Almost done, I promise =). Now let’s get some user input and run the function:

try:
    while True:
        print(
            "Welcome to the quote finder! Please enter a quote to find similar quotes."
        )
        user_quote = input("Enter a quote or press ctrl+c to exit: ")
        result = find_similar_quotes(user_quote)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
    print("Exiting...")

While True is an infinite loop. So this will keep running forever until the user types CTRL+C, triggering the KeyboardInterrupt error. We print a welcome message and then get user input. We then run the find_similar_quotes function on the user input, which is set up to print of its own accord so we only have to call it. We then print a message and exit the program if the user types CTRL+C.

import openai
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

from decouple import config
from openai.embeddings_utils import cosine_similarity


openai.api_key = config("CHATGPT_API_KEY")
EMBEDDING_MODEL = "text-embedding-ada-002"


def get_quote_embedding(quote):
    response = openai.Embedding.create(
        model=EMBEDDING_MODEL,
        input=quote,
    )
    return response["data"][0]["embedding"]


df = pd.read_csv("Fx_embedding_db.csv")
df["embedding"] = df.embedding.apply(eval).apply(np.array)


def find_similar_quotes(user_input, number_of_results=5):
    user_embedding = get_quote_embedding(user_input)
    df["similarity"] = df.embedding.apply(
        lambda embedding: cosine_similarity(embedding, user_embedding)
    )
    result = df.sort_values(by="similarity", ascending=False).head(number_of_results)
    for i in range(number_of_results):
        print(
            f"{i+1}: {result.iloc[i]['quote']} - {result.iloc[i]['author']} ({result.iloc[i]['similarity']})"
        )
    return result


try:
    while True:
        print(
            "Welcome to the quote finder! Please enter a quote to find similar quotes."
        )
        user_quote = input("Enter a quote or press ctrl+c to exit: ")
        result = find_similar_quotes(user_quote)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
    print("Exiting...")

Save and run the file. Again, you might need to pip install numpy, pandas, or something else if you get a specific error about missing packages. When you run the file it should take a couple of seconds to load up all the quotes and then you’ll get a prompt:

Welcome to the quote finder! Please enter a quote to find similar quotes.
Enter a quote:

Try something, whatever you feel like! For example:

The meaning of life is happiness and service.

And we get the most similar quotes with their similarity percentage score:

1: The meaning of life is to find your gift. The purpose of life is to give it away. - Pablo Picasso (0.8907866069418188)
2: Be glad of life because it gives you the chance to love, and to work, and to play and to look up at the stars. - Henry Van Dyke (0.8440406273541274)
3: Greatness comes from living with purpose and passion. - Ralph Marston (0.8426245135287526)
4: Happiness is a quality of the soul...not a function of one's material circumstances. - Aristotle (0.8360302282755299)
5: I define joy as a sustained sense of well-being and internal peace - a connection to what matters. - Oprah Winfrey (1954 - ), O Magazine (0.8352056139518256)

Let’s try another one:

Do not fear making mistakes.

Here are the results. You may notice that some of the quotes don’t even include the word fear or mistake, yet they are very relevant. This is the power of embeddings and searching by similarity of meaning.

1: The greatest mistake you can make in life is to be continually fearing you will make one. - Elbert Hubbard (0.8887830945296347)
2: The greatest mistake a man can make is to be afraid of making one. - Elbert Hubbard (1856 - 1915) (0.8806882070512129)
3: Don't let the fear of losing be greater than the excitement of winning. - Robert Kiyosaki (0.8365511373648952)
4: You may be disappointed if you fail, but you are doomed if you don't try.  - Beverly Sills (0.8351233284609576)
5: For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them. - Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), Nichomachean Ethics (0.8234924901725198)

When you’re done playing around, press CTRL+C to exit the program.

In this tutorial, we have our DataFrame with all our data stored in memory. This is fine for our project as our CSV database is only about 8 MB in size. But if you’re working with a very large project which is far beyond the scope of this tutorial you will want to consider using a specialized vector database for more efficient storage and similarity search.

That’s it for part 6. In the final part, we’ll be looking at another potential use for embeddings, which is to analyze certain characteristics and the sentiment of text using purely embeddings, without ever training a machine-learning model on training data. See you there!

///-///-///– End of tutorial — Below are the quotes in case the txt file is unavailable –///-///-///

A man is great not because he hasn't failed; a man is great because failure hasn't stopped him. - Confucius
Happiness is a gift and the trick is not to expect it, but to delight in it when it comes. - Charles Dickens
Everyday you can take a tiny step in the right direction. - Unknown
Sometimes adversity is what you need to face in order to become successful. - Zig Ziglar
Opportunity comes when you continually push forward. - Sonia Ricotti
Always seek out the seed of triumph in every adversity. - Og Mandino
Reality is nothing but a collective hunch. - Lily Tomlin
Best be yourself, imperial, plain, and true. - Robert Browning
Resilience is not what happens to you. It's how you react to, respond to, and recover from what happens to you. - Jeffrey Gitomer
Time is a game played beautifully by children. - Heraclitus
Most people fail in life because they major in minor things. - Tony Robbins
Anyone who has ever made anything of importance was disciplined. - Andrew Hendrixson
Do anything, but let it produce joy. - Walt Whitman
When you get up in the morning, you have two choices - either to be happy or to be unhappy. Just choose to be happy. - Norman Vincent Peale
The greatest mistake you can make in life is to be continually fearing you will make one. - Elbert Hubbard
Attitude, not aptitude, determines altitude. - Zig Ziglar
A simple rule in dealing with those who are hard to get along with is to remember that this person is striving to assert his superiority; and you must deal with him from that point of view. - Alfred Adler
For fast-acting relief try slowing down. - Lily Tomlin
Patience is a bitter plant, but its fruit is sweet. - Chinese Proverb
Heaven is right where you are standing. - Morihei Ueshiba
Don't let the fear of losing be greater than the excitement of winning. - Robert Kiyosaki
Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving. - Albert Einstein
Hold yourself responsible for a higher standard than anybody else expects of you. - Henry Ward Beecher
The secret of life is to fall seven times and to get up eight times. - Paulo Coelho
There are people who have money and people who are rich. - Coco Chanel
Truth is like most opinions - best unexpressed. - Kenneth Branagh
Success is getting what you want... Happiness is wanting what you get. - Dale Carnegie
Engage in those actions and thoughts that nurture the good qualities you want to have. - Paramahansa Yogananda
If you cannot understand something, then you have understood it incorrectly. - Kabir
The dead receive more flowers than the living because regret is stronger than gratitude. - Anne Frank
The fastest way to change is to laugh at your own folly. - Spencer Johnson
Because a thing seems difficult for you, do not think it impossible. - Marcus Aurelius
I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear. - Nelson Mandela
Turn your wounds into wisdom. - Oprah Winfrey
Your best life will not be found in comfort. It will be found in fighting for what you believe in. - Maxime Lagace
I never dwell on what happened. You can't change it. Move forward. - Joan Rivers
Absence makes the heart grow fonder. - Eleanor Roosevelt
Some men see things as they are and ask why. Others dream things that never were and ask why not. - George Bernard Shaw
You must conceive it in your heart and mind before you can receive it. If you believe then all things are possible. - Norman Vincent Peale
An inch of time is an inch of gold but you can't buy that inch of time with an inch of gold. - Chinese Proverb
He who hesitates is a damned fool. - Mae West
Until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate. - Carl Jung
A loving heart is the truest wisdom. - Charles Dickens
Hope itself is like a star- not to be seen in the sunshine of prosperity, and only to be discovered in the night of adversity. - Charles Spurgeon
Try all things, hold fast that which is good. - John Locke
If you are not living each day with excitement, energy, and passion, then you are not living true to your life purpose. - Celestine Chua
The more knowledge you have, the more you're free to rely on your instincts. - Arnold Schwarzenegger
You can live a whole life time never being awake. - Dan Millman
What you are afraid of is never as bad as what you imagine. The fear you let build up in your mind is worse than the situation that actually exists. - Spencer Johnson
The wise accomplish all that they want without arousing the envy or scorn of others. - Ming-Dao Deng
It's only after you've stepped outside your comfort zone that you begin to change, grow, and transform. - Roy T. Bennett
Our view of the world is truly shaped by what we decide to hear. - William James
Happiness is a quality of the soul...not a function of one's material circumstances. - Aristotle
So long as we are being remembered, we remain alive. - Carlos Ruiz Zafon
Throw me to the wolves and I will return leading the pack. - Seneca
The wisest men follow their own direction. - Euripides
All our knowledge has its origins in our perceptions. - Leonardo da Vinci
Tradition is the illusion of permanence. - Woody Allen
There is no greatness where there is not simplicity, goodness, and truth. - Leo Tolstoy
You may be disappointed if you fail, but you are doomed if you don't try. - Beverly Sills
It does not do to dwell on dreams and forget to live, remember that. - Albus Dumbledore
It is better to be looked over than overlooked. - Mae West
Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth. - Henry David Thoreau
If what you're doing is not your passion, you have nothing to lose. - Celestine Chua
Troubles are often the tools by which God fashions us for better things. - Henry Ward Beecher
We can't help everyone, but everyone can help someone. - Ronald Reagan
My definition of success is control. - Kenneth Branagh
Before you can see the Light, you have to deal with the darkness. - Dan Millman
Difficult and meaningful will always bring more satisfaction than easy and meaningless. - Maxime Lagace
Welcome every morning with a smile. Look on the new day as another gift from your Creator, another golden opportunity. - Og Mandino
Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer. - Sun Tzu
It is the power of thought that gives man power over nature. - Hans Christian Andersen
The most creative act you will ever undertake is the act of creating yourself. - Deepak Chopra
Your setback is just a setup for a comeback. - Steve Harvey
Don't talk about what you have done or what you are going to do. - Thomas Jefferson
Don't look for meaning in the words. Listen to the silences. - Samuel Beckett
Our anxiety does not empty tomorrow of its sorrows, but only empties today of its strengths. - Charles Spurgeon
You can never get enough of what you don't need to make you happy. - Eric Hoffer
If a man knows not to which port he sails, no wind is favorable. - Seneca
What people need and what they want may be very different. - Elbert Hubbard
Show up even when you don't want to show up. - Steve Harvey
Play your part in life, but never forget that it is only a role. - Paramahansa Yogananda
I have no methods; all I do is accept people as they are. - Joan Rivers
The way of success is the way of continuous pursuit of knowledge. - Napoleon Hill
If you are ever the smartest person in the room, you are in the wrong room. - C. Sean McGee
Do the hard jobs first. The easy jobs will take care of themselves. - Dale Carnegie
If you believe you can, you can. If you believe you can't, then, well you can't. - Celestine Chua
Sometimes it is harder to deprive oneself of a pain than of a pleasure. - F. Scott Fitzgerald
The smallest of actions is always better than the noblest of intentions. - Robin Sharma
Freeing oneself from words is liberation. - Bodhidharma
Reality is the leading cause of stress among those in touch with it. - Lily Tomlin
A day without laughter is a day wasted. - Charlie Chaplin
I live by letting things happen. - Dogen
Don't try to be young. Just open your mind. Stay interested in stuff. - Betty White
A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at him. - David Brinkley
Greatness comes from living with purpose and passion. - Ralph Marston
A bird does not sing because it has an answer. It sings because it has a song. - Chinese Proverb
The meaning of life is to find your gift. The purpose of life is to give it away. - Pablo Picasso
Imagination is the true magic carpet. - Norman Vincent Peale
If you do the work you get rewarded. There are no shortcuts in life. - Michael Jordan
You find peace not by rearranging the circumstances of your life, but by realizing who you are at the deepest level. - Eckhart Tolle
Don't wait for the right opportunity: create it. - George Bernard Shaw
Change is never easy, but always possible. - Barack Obama
Kindness in words creates confidence. Kindness in thinking creates profoundness. Kindness in giving creates love. - Lao Tzu
Good judgment comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgment. - Rita Mae Brown
The spirit is beyond destruction. No one can bring an end to spirit which is everlasting. - Bhagavad Gita
If you want peace, accept. If you want suffering, expect. - Maxime Lagace
In order to control myself I must first accept myself by going with and not against my nature. - Bruce Lee
Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, there lies your vocation. - Aristotle
If you want to be successful, you have to jump, there's no way around it. - Steve Harvey
All life is a manifestation of the spirit, the manifestation of love. - Morihei Ueshiba
A poet should be so crafty with words that he is envied even for his pains. - Criss Jami
The first rule of handling conflict is don't hang around people who are constantly engaging in conflict. - Naval Ravikant
Generosity is giving more than you can, and pride is taking less than you need. - Kahlil Gibran
If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. - Lao Tzu
Less is more. - Robert Browning
Sorrow is how we learn to love. - Rita Mae Brown
A man with outward courage dares to die: a man with inner courage dares to live. - Lao Tzu
Because of your smile, you make life more beautiful. - Thich Nhat Hanh
Progress is limited by your ability to change your mind. - Jack Butcher
A person without a sense of humor is like a wagon without springs, jolted by every pebble in the road. - Henry Ward Beecher
The only limits in your life are those that you set yourself. - Celestine Chua
Do one thing every day that scares you. - Eleanor Roosevelt
We shape clay into a pot, but it is the emptiness inside that holds whatever we want. - Lao Tzu
There is no self-discovery without pain and loss. - Anita Krizzan
It isn't what you do, but how you do it. - John Wooden
A needle is not sharp at both ends. - Chinese Proverb
True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing. - Socrates
It is far easier to start something than it is to finish it. - Amelia Earhart
It is better to fail in originality than to succeed in imitation. - Herman Melville
Ability is a poor man's wealth. - John Wooden
Be truthful about your emotions, and use your mind and emotions in your favor, not against yourself. - Robert Kiyosaki
Even if you're sure you can win, be careful that you can live with what you lose. - Gary Keller
Learn only how to avoid seeking for and attaching yourselves to anything. - Huang Po
Just trust that everything is unfolding the way it is supposed to. Don't resist... Great things are waiting for you around the corner. - Sonia Ricotti
The real measure of your wealth is how much you'd be worth if you lost all your money. - Unknown
Kindness is a language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see. - Mark Twain
Thought is so cunning, so clever, that it distorts everything for its own convenience. - Jiddu Krishnamurti
There is only one way to happiness and that is to cease worrying about things which are beyond the power or our will. - Epictetus
A little progress each day adds up to big results. - Unknown
I think it's very important to have a feedback loop, where you're constantly thinking about what you've done and how you could be doing it better. - Elon Musk
Problems remain as problems because people are busy defending them rather than finding solutions. - Celestine Chua
The only defense against the world is a thorough knowledge of it. - John Locke
As mortals, we're ruled by conditions, not by ourselves. - Bodhidharma
Never buy a thing you do not want, because it is cheap, it will be dear to you. - Thomas Jefferson
Things cannot forever go downward. There are limits to everything�even the cold, and the darkness, and the wind, and the dying. - Ming-Dao Deng
It is better to disappoint people with the truth than to appease them with a lie. - Simon Sinek
Don't be afraid of enemies who attack you. Be afraid of the friends who flatter you. - Dale Carnegie
Fools read fast. Geniuses reread. - Maxime Lagace
The highest reward for a person's toil is not what they get for it, but what they become by it. - John Ruskin (1819 - 1900), 1819-1900
No pessimist ever discovered the secrets of the stars, or sailed to uncharted land, or opened a new doorway for the human spirit. - Helen Keller (1880 - 1968)
A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity;
Talk sense to a fool and he calls you foolish. - Euripides (484 BC - 406 BC), The Bacchae, circa 407 B.C.
At the worst, a house unkept cannot be so distressing as a life unlived. - Dame Rose Macaulay (1881 - 1958)
The truth is rarely pure and never simple. - Oscar Wilde (1854 - 1900), The Importance of Being Earnest, 1895, Act I
Imagine what it would be like if TV actually were good. It would be the end of everything we know. - Marvin Minsky
Cynics regarded everybody as equally corrupt... Idealists regarded everybody as equally corrupt, except themselves. - Robert Anton Wilson
To be an adult is to be alone. - Jean Rostand (1894 - 1977), Thoughts of a biologist (1939)
A psychiatrist is a fellow who asks you a lot of expensive questions your wife asks for nothing. - Joey Adams
The greatest mistake a man can make is to be afraid of making one. - Elbert Hubbard (1856 - 1915)
There is an expiry date on blaming your parents for steering you in the wrong direction. The moment you are old enough to take the wheel, the responsibility lies with you. - J. K. Rowling, Harvard Commencement Address, 2008
Not to know is bad. Not to wish to know is worse. - African Proverb
And perfection is no trifle. - Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 - 1564)
I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there. - Confucius (551 BC - 479 BC), The Confucian Analects
Ignorance is not innocence but sin. - Robert Browning (1812 - 1889)
Opinions mean nothing; they may be beautiful or ugly, clever or foolish, anyone can embrace or reject them. - Hermann Hesse (1877 - 1962), Siddhartha
How could you?! Haven't you learned anything from that guy who gives those sermons at church? Captain Whatshisname? We live in a society of laws! Why do you think I took you to all those Police Academy movies? For fun? Well, I didn't hear anybody laughing, did you? Except at that guy who made sound effects. Makes sound effects and laughs. Where was I? Oh yeah! Stay out of my booze. - Matt Groening (1954 - ), The Simpsons
Does it really matter what these affectionate people do-- so long as they don’t do it in the streets and frighten the horses! - Mrs. Patrick Campbell
For death begins with life's first breath, and life begins at touch of death. - John Oxenham
What's another word for Thesaurus? - Steven Wright (1955 - )
Once we believe in ourselves, we can risk curiosity, wonder, spontaneous delight, or any experience that reveals the human spirit. - e e cummings (1894 - 1962)
For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them. - Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), Nichomachean Ethics
Praise will come to those whose kindness leaves you without debt. - Neil Finn, track #12 on his album "Try Whistling This"
Waste no more time talking about great souls and how they should be. Become one yourself! - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121 AD - 180 AD)
You can’t love a crowd the same way you can love a person.
Confusion is always the most honest response. - Marty Indik
Whether you believe you can do a thing or not, you are right. - Henry Ford (1863 - 1947)
Now begins a torrent of words and a trickling of sense. - Theocritus of Chios (310 BC - 250 BC)
If there was strife and contention in the home, very little else in life could compensate for it. - Lawana Blackwell, The Courtship of the Vicar's Daughter, 1998
Science is organized knowledge. - Herbert Spencer (1820 - 1903)
I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent. - Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948)
Remember that what you believe will depend very much on what you are. - Noah Porter (1811 - 1892)
One might define adulthood as the age at which a person learns he must die and accepts his sentence undismayed. - Robert Heinlein (1907 - 1988)
Each bird loves to hear himself sing. - Arapaho Proverb
The only obligation which I have a right to assume, is to do at any time what I think right. - Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862), Civil Disobience
To be content with what one has is the greatest and truest of riches. - Cicero (106 BC - 43 BC)
The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time. - Bertrand Russell (1872 - 1970)
Most conversations are simply monologues delivered in the presence of witnesses. - Margaret Millar
I was not looking for my dreams to interpret my life, but rather for my life to interpret my dreams. - Susan Sontag (1933 - 2004)
Trifles go to make perfection,
There is one and only one social responsibility of business-to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud. - Milton Friedman (1912 - 2006)
My problem lies in reconciling my gross habits with my net income. - Errol Flynn (1909 - 1959)
Everyone is having a harder time than it appears. - Charles Grodin
When I was born the doctor took one look at my face, turned me over and said, Look ... twins! - Rodney Dangerfield (1921 - 2004)
Be glad of life because it gives you the chance to love, and to work, and to play and to look up at the stars. - Henry Van Dyke
Such present joys therein I find,
I am just going outside and may be some time. - Captain Lawrence Oates (1880 - 1912), last words
Convictions are more dangerous enemies of the truth than lies. - Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900)
All that is in this world is vanity, but to love God and to serve only Him. - Thomas Kempis, Imitation of Christe
See first that the design is wise and just: that ascertained, pursue it resolutely; do not for one repulse forego the purpose that you resolved to effect. - William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616)
If you can't answer a man's argument, all is not lost; you can still call him vile names. - Elbert Hubbard (1856 - 1915)
Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws. - Plato (427 BC - 347 BC)
A casual stroll through the lunatic asylum shows that faith does not prove anything. - Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900)
I envy people who drink. At least they have something to blame everything on. - Oscar Levant (1906 - 1972)
Money, so they say, is the root of all evil today. But if you ask for a raise it's no surprise that they're giving none away. - Pink Floyd, song "Money" (album Dark Side of the Moon)
The brain is a wonderful organ. It starts working the moment you get up in the morning and does not stop until you get into the office. - Robert Frost (1874 - 1963)
What do you mean? Do you wish me a good morning, or mean that it is a good morning whether I want it or not; or that you feel good on this morning; or that it is a morning to be good on? - J. R. R. Tolkien (1892 - 1973), The Hobbit
The peril of every fine faculty is the delight of playing with it for pride. Talent is commonly developed at the expense of character, and the greater it grows, the more is the mischief. Talent is mistaken for genius, a dogma or system for truth, ambition for greatest, ingenuity for poetry, sensuality for art. - Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 - 1882)
I have never thought of writing as hard work, but I have worked hard to find a voice. - Randy Pausch, Carnegie Mellon Commencement Speech, 2008
The scars of others should teach us caution. - Saint Jerome (374 AD - 419 AD), Letter
I hate television. I hate it as much as I hate peanuts. But I can't stop eating peanuts. - Orson Welles (1915 - 1985)
They wanted facts. Facts! They demanded facts from him, as if facts could explain anything. - Joseph Conrad (1857 - 1924)
an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty. - Winston Churchill
Intimacy doesn’t scale. Not really. Intimacy is a one-on-one phenomenon. - Hugh Macleod, How To Be Creative: 26. Write from the heart., 08-22-04
I must dislike those who, whatever I do to please them, persist in disliking me; I must resist those who punish me unjustly. - Charlotte Bronte (1816 - 1855), Jane Eyre
You know, I can see two tiny pictures of myself And there's one in each of your eyes. And they're doin' everything I do. Every time I light a cigarette, they light up theirs. I take a drink and I look in and they're drinkin' too. It's drivin' me crazy. It's drivin' me nuts. - Laurie Anderson, Sharkey's Night
When all else fails, there's always delusion. - Conan O'Brien
Anger is a signal, and one worth listening to. - Harriet Lerner, The Dance of Anger, 1985
The secrets of this earth are not for all men to see, but only for those who seek them. - Ayn Rand (1905 - 1982), Anthem
I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half. - Jay Gould (1836 - 1892)
Of two evils we must always choose the least. - Thomas a Kempis (1380 - 1471)
Well, if I called the wrong number, why did you answer the phone? - James Thurber (1894 - 1961), New Yorker cartoon caption, June 5, 1937
I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this Government: 'I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat." - Sir Winston Churchill (1874 - 1965), Hansard, May 13, 1940
The only "ism" hollywood believes in is plagiarism. - Dorothy Parker (1893 - 1967)
Human consciousness arose but a minute before midnight on the geological clock. Yet we mayflies try to bend an ancient world to our purposes, ignorant perhaps of the messages buried in its long history. Let us hope that we are still in the early morning of our April day. - Stephen Jay Gould (1941 - 2002)
Do it now. It is not safe to leave a generous feeling to the cooling influences of the world. - Thomas Guthrie
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside. - Alexander Pope (1688 - 1744), An Essay on Criticism, 1711
The greater man the greater courtesy. - Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809 - 1892)
Water, taken in moderation, cannot hurt anybody. - Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)
If you can’t take responsibility for your own well-being, you will never take control over it. - Jennifer Hudson, I Got This: How I Changed My Ways and Lost What Weighed Me Down, 2012
You cannot be really first-rate at your work if your work is all you are. - Anna Quindlen (1953 - ), A Short Guide to a Happy Life, 2000
How helpless we are, like netted birds, when we are caught by desire! - Belva Plain
We promise according to our hopes, and perform according to our fears. - Dag Hammarskjold (1905 - 1961)
To Thales the primary question was not what do we know, but how do we know it. - Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC)
When the candles are out all women are fair. - Plutarch (46 AD - 120 AD), Morals
Who ever loved that loved not at first sight? - William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616), As You Like It, Act III, sc. 5
The highest proof of virtue is to possess boundless power without abusing it. - Lord Macaulay, review of Lucy Aikin, 'Life and Writings of Addison,' 1943
It was the Law of the Sea, they said. Civilization ends at the waterline. Beyond that, we all enter the food chain, and not always right at the top. - Hunter S. Thompson (1939 - 2005)
There are no frontiers in this struggle to the death... A victory for any country against imperialism is our victory, just as any country's defeat is a defeat for all. - Ernesto "Che" Guevara, "Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity", February 1965
When a subject becomes totally obsolete we make it a required course. - Peter Drucker (1909 - 2005)
Bad spellers of the world, untie! - Graffito
In taking revenge, a man is but even with his enemy; but in passing it over, he is superior. - Sir Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)
Be not the first by whom the new are tried,
You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man. - Frederick Douglass (1817 - 1895)
That it excels all other bliss. - Sir Edward Dyer
Of course it's possible to love a human being if you don't know them too well. - Charles Bukowski (1920 - 1994)
I define joy as a sustained sense of well-being and internal peace - a connection to what matters. - Oprah Winfrey (1954 - ), O Magazine
My mind to me a kingdom is,
And a crowd can’t love you the way a single person can love you.
Anyone whose goal is 'something higher' must expect someday to suffer vertigo. What is vertigo? Fear of falling? No, Vertigo is something other than fear of falling. It is the voice of the emptiness below us which tempts and lures us, it is the desire to fall, against which, terrified, we defend ourselves. - Milan Kundera (1929 - ), The Unbearable Lightness of Being
Love comforteth like sunshine after rain. - William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616), King Henry VI, Part 3
I don't understand why people think everything has to have meaning. While painting the Mona Lisa did Leonardo Da Vinci intend for it to have greater meaning than a work of art that he made? - Devin J. Monroe (1983 - )
A pessimist is a man who looks both ways before crossing a one way street. - Laurence J. Peter (1919 - 1988), Peter's Quotations, by Laurence J. Peter, 1977
Faced with the choice between changing one's mind and proving that there is no need to do so, almost everyone gets busy on the proof. - John Kenneth Galbraith (1908 - 2006)
War is only a continuation of state policy by other means. - Karl von Clausewitz, In Clausewitz's 1827 work "On War"
All strangers and beggars are from Zeus, and a gift, though small, is precious. - Homer (800 BC - 700 BC), The Odyssey

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